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Clinical Application Evaluation of a Fourth-Generation HIV Antigen Antibody Combination Screening Assay by Hui Han, Yanhua Huang, Qian Dong, Yunxiu Huang, Jianqiang Lu, Weijia Wang, Kang Chen

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are infectious diseases with high mortality. Early diagnosis is crucial. Combining HIV antibody and p24 antigen, the Elecsys HIV combi PT assay is a fourth generation HIV screening assay. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was examined.
Methods: A total of 111,556 samples was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018 in Zhongshan Hospital of Yat-Sen University. We conducted a fourth-generation HIV test of retrospective HIV screening samples and assessed the reliability of using signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratios to distinguish false positive HIV antibody reactions and analyzed false positives.
Results: A total of 122 specimens were confirmed as HIV-1 infected by western blot (WB) and HIV nucleic acid assays. The median S/CO ratio for HIV false positive specimens was 3.27, while for the HIV-infected specimen it was 391.7. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the best diagnostic point for HIV was 22.85 S/CO. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index were 100%, 97.8%, and 0.978, respectively. The highest false positive rate of 26.4% was found in patients with malignant tumors and blood diseases.
Conclusions: The results of this study show that the fourth-generation Elecsys HIV combination PT test can identify early HIV infected and can be a useful adjunct to help clinicians to manage the disease by viral load testing and starting an appropriate therapy. Our research data provides a reference for subsequent research and HIV testing in the region.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190220