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Elevated Adenosine Dehydrogenase (ADH) and Positive Tuberculin Test Firstly Misdiagnosed as Tuberculous Pleural Effusion Finally Proved as Pleural Mesothelial Sarcoma by Thoracoscopic Biopsy Pathology: a Case Report and Literature Review by Wen Q. Li, Ai S. Fu, Dong F. Shao, Qian Zhang, Meng H. Wang, Hong Y. Wang, Yi Chen, Ci Zhang, Xiao Y. Zhu, Yan L. Ge

Background: In China, tuberculous pleural effusion is the most common cause for pleural effusion. Elevated ADH and positive tuberculin test usually are characteristic of tuberculous pleural effusion. We reported a 71-year-old male patient with elevated ADH and positive tuberculin test firstly misdiagnosed as tuberculous pleural effusion finally proven as pleural mesothelial sarcoma by thoracoscopic pathology.
Methods: Appropriate laboratory tests and thoracentesis were carried out. Thoracoscopy and pathological biopsy were performed to differentiate tuberculous pleural effusion.
Results: Chest CT showed right pleural effusion. ADH in pleural effusion was over 45 U/L and PPD test was positive. No abnormal cells were found in pleural effusion pathology. Pathology of thoracoscopic biopsy proved pleural mesothelioma.
Conclusions: Elevated ADH and positive tuberculin test are not a specific index for tuberculosis and thoracoscopic biopsy pathology is crucial for differential diagnosis.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2019.190323