Background: Screening and timely treatment of precancerous gastric cancer diseases or of gastric cancer in the early stages has important significance in reducing the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. Gastroscopy and histopathological biopsy are still the gold standards for the diagnosis of gastric diseases. But the application of astroscopy for the screening and diagnosis of gastric diseases is limited. In recent years, serum pepsinogen (PG),
gastrin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) IgG antibodies have become indicators for “serological biopsy” of the gastric mucosa.
Methods: From January 2016 to January 2018, a total of 2,394 patients with digestive tract symptoms underwent gastroscopy. According to the endoscopic examination and pathological diagnosis, there were four case groups: 1,376 cases of chronic non-atrophic gastritis, 708 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, 265 cases of gastric ulcer, and 45 cases of gastric cancer. Serological gastric biopsies were performed and analyzed.
Results: The serum levels of PGI in the chronic atrophic gastritis group was significantly lower than that in the chronic non-atrophic gastritis group, gastric ulcer group, and gastric cancer group (p < 0.05). The serum levels of PGII and G-17 in the gastric cancer group were significantly higher than those in the chronic non-atrophic Gastritis group, chronic atrophic gastritis group, and gastric ulcer group (p < 0.05). The PGR in the gastric cancer
group was significantly lower than that in the chronic non-atrophic gastritis group, chronic atrophic Gastritis group, and gastric ulcer group (p < 0.05). The H. pylori positive rates in the chronic atrophic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were higher than those in the chronic non-atrophic gastritis group and gastric ulcer Group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Serological gastric biopsy is closely correlated to gastric mucosal disease and can be used as a Screening tool in gastric disease.