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Positive Serum Beta-D-glucan by G Test and Aspergillus Fumigatus Sputum Culture Mimic Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Pulmonary Nocardia Patient: a Case Report and Literature Review by Yan L. Ge, Xiao Y. Zhu, Kun Hu, Qian Zhang, Wen Q. Li, Ci Zhang, Dong F. Shao, Ling Wang, Hai F. Zhang, Cong H. Liu, Yi Chen, Qian C. Chen, Jing J. Jin, Tian T. Xu, Ai S. Fu

Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and nocardia overlap in clinical and radiological presentations, so differentiating between nocardia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is confusing.
Though sputum culture could distinguish between nocardia and aspergillus fumigatus, but for the ultimate diagnosis, sputum culture provided limited help. Here we report a case of a patient with positive G test and aspergillus fumigatus sputum culture mimic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis ultimately diagnosed as nocardia through bronchoalveolar lavage culture combined metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS).
Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage culture combined metagenomic NGS for infectious diseases were performed for diagnosis.
Results: Bronchoalveolar lavage culture combined metagenomic next-generation sequencing showed Nocardia Gelsenkirchen.
Conclusions: Positive G test and sputum culture were not specific, while bronchoalveolar lavage culture and NGS gave more information for a differential diagnosis between nocardia and aspergillus fumigatus.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.181105