Background: Detection of bacteremia via a peripheral blood smear is not a routine diagnostic test and is not widely used.
Methods: A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room owing to a head injury. Basic examinations and peripheral blood smear were performed.
Results: We detected bacteria via a routine Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear. Gram-negative bacilli were confirmed by Gram staining. Blood cultures showed positive results for Escherichia coli. Despite intensive medical treatment, the patient’s condition deteriorated rapidly and he died 4 days after admission.
Conclusions: Detection of bacteremia via a peripheral blood smear is a rapid and simple method that can provide a preliminary diagnosis of septicemia before culture results are available, thereby enabling clinicians to administer specific empirical antimicrobial treatment.