Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a multifactorial disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in both mother and newborn. Although there are many studies that track the effects of PIH on maternal and neonatal outcome, the results are contradictory. This retrospective study focuses on the effect of maternal PIH on neonatal hematological changes (thrombocytopenia and neutropenia). It also tries to determine whether neonatal thrombocytopenia and neutropenia are direct consequences of maternal PIH, rather than of the small for gestational age (SGA) status of the newborn.
Methods: A three year restrospective observational study was conducted, from 1st of January 2014 to 31st of December 2016, on 6,077 newborns registered at the Neonatology Department of the Clinic of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Neonatology, Emergency County Hospital, Timișoara, România. Selection of newborns with maternal PIH was made using the case-mix records RO DRG v1., according to which PIH was classified in gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia. Patients were divided into four study groups, according to birth weight for gestational age and presence or absence of maternal PIH: 5,867 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates form healthy mothers (AGA-Controls), 152 small for gestational age neonates from healthy mothers (SGA-Controls), 40 AGA newborns with maternal PIH (AGA-PIH) and 18 SGA newborns with maternal PIH (SGA-PIH). Regression and correlation analysis using the XLSTAT Microsoft Excel® tool pack, was performed to compare data from the study groups of neonates from mothers with PIH and the control groups of neonates from normotensive mothers.
Results: SGA-PIH neonates were the most affected with regard to the hematological abnormalities (33.3% neutropenic and 27.7% thrombocytopenic newborns) followed by AGA-PIH neonates (22.5% neutropenia and 17.5% thrombocytopenia). SGA-Controls had much lower percentages of both neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (2.63% and 1.97% respectively), whereas AGA-Controls had no record of any hematological changes.
Conclusions: Maternal PIH has a strong influence on the development of newborn hematologic abnormalities, such as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The incidence and severity of these hematological changes are increased in neonates of mothers with PIH, that are born preterm and/or SGA.