Background: Perinatal HIE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, despite the improvements in perinatal care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role Cu, Zn, and Mg+2 neurometals in the development of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
Methods: This study included two groups: group 1 (study group): Thirty full term, and diagnosed as having hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Group 2 (control group): Thirty full term healthy neonates. All the neonates included in the study were subjected to full history taking and complete clinical and neuromuscular examinations. Laboratory investigations were done in both groups and included complete blood picture, renal functions test, ESR, serum zinc, copper, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium levels.
Results: There were high serum zinc and copper levels in the patient group compared to the control group. However, there was low serum magnesium, calcium, and sodium levels in the patient group compared to the control group. There was a significant difference regarding Apgar score at 1 minute and 5 minutes between patient and control groups. The mean ESR values in patient group at the first hour and second hour were higher in the patient than the control group.
Conclusions: Neonates with perinatal asphyxia have significantly higher levels of serum zinc and copper and lower serum magnesium, calcium, and potassium levels compared to healthy non asphyxiated neonates. Copper, zinc, and magnesium may play an important role in the development of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; however, further studies are needed to support our findings.