Background: The aim of this research was to analyze the ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in repairing rabbit alveolar bone defect.
Methods: First, DPSCs were isolated from the pulp tissue of the anterior teeth and molars of young rabbits and cultured in vitro. Subsequently, cell cloning efficiency, anti-vimentin, and anti-CD44 immunohistochemical staining were investigated. Second, bone defect models were made in rabbit alveolar toothless jaw. The bone defects in the control group were filled with 0.25 g bio-oss bone mixed with PBS solution, while the bone defects in the experimental group were filled with 0.25 g bio-oss bone mixed with 1 x 108 DPSCs/L. Animals were sacrificed six weeks after the surgery, the alveolar tissue was collected for paraffin sections, HE staining, and immunohistochemistry of bone sialoprotein (BSP).
Results: The immunocytochemistry results of surface markers showed a positive staining of vimentin and CD44 in the DPSCs forming low density colonies after inoculation. The alveolar tissue of the control group showed a small amount of erythrocytes highlighted by HE staining, with no visible new bone formation except for a few osteoblasts, with a weakly positive BSP immunohistochemical staining. HE staining in the experimental group showed that the inflammatory exudate was significantly absorbed, some new bone tissue was present, with many osteoblasts around the bone defects, and with a strong positive BSP immunohistochemical staining, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: DPSCs possess the ability to differentiate into bone cells, promoting the repair and regeneration of alveolar bone defects.