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Clinical and Biochemical Profile of Tyrosinemia Type 1 in Tunisia by Fahmi Nasrallah, Mohamed Bessem Hammami, Hanen Ben Rhouma, Sondes Hadj Fradj, Hatem Azzouz, Souheil Omar, Moncef Feki, Ilhem Turki Ben Youssef, Taieb Messaoud, Neji Tebib, Naziha Kaabachi

Background: Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a defect of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HT1 in Tunisia and report its clinical, biochemical and genetic features.
Methods: During the last 25 years, 69 patients were diagnosed with HT1 based on clinical features and increased succinylacetone (SA) in blood and urine. SA was detected by GC-MS after oximation and quantified by a spectrophotometric method. Nine prenatal diagnoses for HT1 have been done and nine unrelated patients were screened for the hotspot IVS61(G-T) mutation using PCR.
Results: Using the Hardy-Weinberg formula, the incidence of HT1 was estimated at 1/14804 births in Tunisia. According to clinical form, 21 patients (30%) had the acute form and 48 patients (70%) had the chronic form. Mean plasma and urine SA were higher in the acute form (24 and 193 µmol/L vs. 9 and 90 µmol/L, respectively). Diagnosis of HT1 was done for 4 fetuses. The hotspot IVS6-1(G-T) mutation was found in six of nine explored patients.
Conclusions: The incidence of HT1 is relatively high in Tunisia with a predominance of the chronic form. It is important to diagnose the disease as early as possible to prevent unfavorable issues. Prenatal diagnosis should be recommended to minimize the recurrence of the disease.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2014.141009