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Is the severity of Periodontitis Related to Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations? by Ulku Baser, Gorkem Oztekin, Evin Ademoglu, Gulden Isik, Funda Yalcin

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease caused by microorganisms and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth supporting tissues leading to tooth loss. Periodontal diseases are associated with an increase in CRP (C-reactive protein) levels. Release of the cytokines such as prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) from the periodontal lesion, stimulate hepatocytes and circulating leukocytes to produce CRP. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate serum levels of hs-CRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of hs-CRP, PGE2, and IL-1β in patients with varying degrees of periodontal disease.
Methods: A total of 60 (30 mild and 30 severe) chronic periodontitis patients were included in this study. GCF and serum samples were collected and whole-mouth clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. GCF levels of hs-CRP, PGE2, IL-1β, and serum levels of hs-CRP were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Serum hs-CRP levels were measured by latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Correlation analyses were performed between the sampled site PD, CAL, and the biomarkers.
Results: The groups were similar with regard to age, gender, and number of teeth. All periodontal clinical parameters were increased in the severe periodontitis group. GCF IL-1β and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in the severe periodontitis group than in the mild periodontitis group (p = 0.04). Serum and GCF levels of hs-CRP were not significantly different between severe and mild cases. There was no significant correlation between serum and GCF levels of CRP. GCF IL-1β levels were positively correlated with the PD of the sampled site (r = 0.52, p = 0.003).
Conclusions: IL-1β in GCF could be a marker of disease severity and activity. Neither serum nor GCF levels of hsCRP differed with disease severity. Serum hs-CRP levels did not reflect GCF levels in periodontitis patients. Local and systemic involvement of CRP in periodontal disease remains to be determined.

DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2014.131217