Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
Methods: A total of 54 carbapenem nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were recovered from clinical samples sent to the Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital from the period 2011 through 2014. Forty-four isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the other 10 were Enterobacter cloacae (CREC).The isolate identifications and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using a Vitek2 automatic system. The clonality of isolates was determined using rep-PCR Diversilab. Presence of blaOXA-48, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaKPC genes were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers.
Results: CRKP were isolated from blood, urine, wounds, catheter tips, and tracheal aspirate samples; a total 44 isolates were evaluated. All isolates were nonsusceptible to ertapenem/imipenem or meropenem. Eighteen percent of the isolates were resistant to colistin. CREC were isolated from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and sputum; a total of 10 isolates were evaluated. They were resistant to all carbapenems and 90% were resistant to cefoperazone/sulbactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and 50 - 70% isolates were resistant to gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. Thirty-three (75%) OXA-48 producing CRKP were identified. Thirteen (29.5%) were positive and two (4.5%) NDM-producing K. pneumoniae were co-producing OXA-48. Of the ten CREC strains tested, eight were positive for blaNDM, one isolate was positive for blaVIM and another for blaIMP genes. rep-PCR typing revealed the presence of a clonal dissemination in CRKP and CREC in the hospital.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first identification of blaNDM in E. cloacae isolates in Turkey. These findings describe an interhospital spread of CRKP-producing OXA-48 and NDM carbapenemases that started in 2011. Continuous monitoring is necessary to better understand their dissemination in the hospital, which probably occurred as a result of transmission from an environmental reservoir. These findings emphasize the need for intensive surveillance and precautions.